Novel Eco-friendly Cell Factory for the Production of Tellurium Nanorods
The nanotechnology market represents a flourishing and highly diverse market, with applications ranging from nanomedicine (wound care and antimicrobial coatings), to nanomaterials, including the development of solar panels and electronics. Despite the variety of applications, nanotechnology faces several hurdles before becoming a viable and practical option for research and integration into marketable solutions. These hurdles include high production costs for nano-products, and the harsh chemicals used in nanotechnology synthesis.
A team of researchers from the University of Calgary have developed a new step detection technique that successfully detects steps under varying motion speeds and device, use cases with an average performance of 99.6%, and outperforms some of the state of the art techniques that rely on classifiers and commercial wristband products. It adaptively tunes the filters and thresholds used without the need for presets while accomplishing the task in a real-time operation manner. The algorithm is based on conclusions drawn from extensive analysis of the three signals used for the step detection which are the acceleration norm, angular rates vector, and magnetic vector.
Kinematic Geodetic System for Positions and Attitude Determination - KINGSPAD
Researchers at the University of Calgary have developed a kinematic geodectic system for positions and attitude determination (KINGSPAD), a software for managing and processing GPS and Strap-down INS data in an integrated fastion. Both INS and GPS are, in principle, capable of determining position and attitude of moving platforms in post-mission. In practice, due to the double integration of the INS acceleration data, the time-dependent position errors will quickly exceed the accuracy specifications for many trajectory determination applications. Frequent updating is, therefore, needed to achieve the required accuracies. GPS on the other hand, can deliver excellent position accuracy, but has the problem of cycle slips, which are in essence gross errors leading to a discontinuity in the trajectory.
The combination of the two measuring systems offers a number of advantages. In the absence of cycle slips, the excellent positioning accuracy of differential GPS can be used to provide frequent updates for the interial system. The inertial sensors orientation information and the precise short-term position and velocity can be used for cycle slip detection and correction. The nine available independent measurements are available for the determination of the six required trajectory parameters which greatly enhances the reliabilty of the system.
To optimally combine the redundant information, a Kalman filtering scheme is used whereby the interial state vector is regularly updated by GPS measurement. Two integrations strategies can be implemented at the software level using the Kalman filter approach. In the first one, a common state vector is used to model both the INS and GPS errors. In this case, the INS measurements are used to determine the reference trajectory, and the GPS measurements to update the solution and estimate the state vector components - often referred to as the centralized filter approach. In the second approach, different filters are run simultaneously and interact only occasionally. The GPS data are Kalman filtered to obtain estimates of position and velocity that are then used as quasi-observations to update the INS Kalman filter. At the same time, the GPS data are continuously checked for cycle slips - often referred to as the decentralized approach which has the advantages of data integrity and speed.
The Golgi complex is composed of a stack of membrane-bound cisternae located in the cytoplasm adjacent to the nucleus. The Golgi processes newly synthesized proteins (post-translational modification), sorts and routes them to their final destination. At the outer surface of this complex or trans Golgi, vesicles containing modified proteins leave the Golgi.
Researchers at the University of Calgary have developed and tested a monoclonal antibody that detects a component of the “trans” compartment of the Golgi apparatus. This molecular biological tool can be used to detect the Golgi complex in a wide variety of cells including tissue culture cells such as HeLa cells, and HEp-2 cells, specialized cells (i.e. spermatids) and archived tissues. This antibody can be used as a reference marker in serological examination of patients diagnosed with Sjogren’s syndrome and other systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases. A large number of patients with anti-Golgi antibodies, particularly golgin97, have Sjogren’s syndrome.
Endocytosis is an important cellular process involved in many facets of cellular function, such as proliferative signaling, neuronal transmission, and the uptake of nutrients. This process relies on the fusion of endocytic vesicles with early endosomes. Early endosomes are responsible for sorting these events and recycling many of the plasma membrane associated receptors. The early endosomal antigen 1 (EEA1) protein, which is present on early endosomes, is involved in vesicle fusion during endocytosis. In neurons, early endosomes are involved in recycling of neurotransmitter receptors, a necessary process in neuron to neuron signaling. Clinically, autoantibodies to EEA1 it have been detected in some patients with neurological deficits. Moreover, autoantibodies to EEA1 were found to enhance excitatory synaptic transmission which may account, in part, for the neuropathies observed in patients with these autoantibodies.
Researchers at the University of Calgary have developed and tested mouse monoclonal antibodies that specifically bind to the human EEA1 protein. These antibodies can be utilized to detect the early endosomes by indirect immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, immunoprecipitation, and by Western blot analysis in both neuronal and non-neuronal cell types.
GW bodies (GWBs, also known as mammalian P bodies) influence the expression and fate of mRNA, and thus the overall cellular mRNA profile. They are involved in the storage, transport and degradation of a subset of mRNA. GWBs are also linked to the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway resulting in either mRNA decay and/or translational repression.
Researchers at the University of Calgary have developed mouse monoclonal antibodies that specifically bind the GW182 protein, a mRNA binding protein within GWBs. These antibodies can be utilized to detect the GW182 protein and GWBs by indirect immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, immunoprecipitation, and by Western blot analysis. These monoclonal antibodies can be used as reference markers to validate the presence of autoantibodies to GWBs in patients with motor/sensory neuropathy, Sjögren’s syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
The ING genes encode a family of at least seven proteins with conserved plant homeodomain (PHD)-type zinc fingers in their C-termini. The founding member, ING1, is capable of binding to and affecting the activity of histone acetyltransferase (HAT), histone deacetylase (HDAC), and factor acetyltransferase (FAT) protein complexes. Upon UV irradiation, ING1 and ING2 bind stress induced signaling phospholipids such as phosphatidylinositol 5-monophosphate and cause cell cycle arrest. ING1b interacts with proliferating cell nuclear antigen to promote DNA repair or induce apoptosis in cells to prevent tumorigenesis, depending upon the severity of DNA damage. ING proteins, which are down-regulated in a broad variety of cancer types, are able to restrict cell growth and proliferation, induce apoptosis, and modulate cell cycle progression, which strongly supports the notion that ING family proteins act as type II tumor suppressors. The ING proteins regulate chromatin structure through specific binding to histones H3 and H4 via their plant homeodomains (PHDs) and recruitment of HAT & HDAC complexes to particular regions of chromatin, thus playing central roles in reading of the "histone code".
Researchers at the University of Calgary have developed a panel of nine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against human and rodent ING1 proteins that specifically recognize the p33ING1b, p47ING1a and p24ING1c isoforms of ING1.
Cell Lines Expressing Calcium Channel and Genetically-Encoded Calcium Indicators
Voltage-gated calcium channels are important conduits for the entry of Ca2+ into numerous cell types, and consequently are major therapeutic targets for several disease states linked to ion channels. Conventional electrophysiological approaches used to study ion channels present many challenges that impede novel research and drug discoveries.
PCR-based Diagnostic for Detection of Lyme Disease Bacteria
Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne disease in North America, and is transmitted by blacklegged ticks carrying Borrelia bacteria. Infection by a tick takes at least 24 hours because of the time required for the bacteria to travel from the tick midgut to its salivary glands. Prompt removal and detection of ticks is the primary method for reducing infection; however, ~300,000 people are still infected with Lyme disease each year in the US alone.
The bacteria responsible for causing Lyme disease are members of the genus Borrelia, with 12 of the 36 known Borrelia species causing Lyme disease. Furthermore, the number of ticks infected with Borrelia bacteria is estimated to be increasing by 2.5% annually. Routine surveillance uses PCR testing on ticks to determine if they carry Borreliaburgdorferi, which is the most common species found in North America; however, new species have been detected and a shift in strain prevalence due to climate changes and regional restrictions of tick travel is expected to continue occurring.
Integrated Neonatal Support with Placental Transfusion and Resuscitation (INSPIRE)
Current international guidelines for the management of infants at birth suggest that there be a delay before the umbilical cord is clamped, this may confer benefit by improving cardiovascular function and postnatal adaptation. Studies show that remaining connected to the umbilical cord for one to three minutes after birth reduces the risk of bleeding in the brain by as much as fifty per cent. The standard care for health newborns is to wait at least one minute after birth before cutting the umbilical cord.
Spontaneous pneumothorax is a significant global health problem with an estimated incidence of up to two million events per year globally. Air in the chest cavity can sometimes resolve itself but often requires a hospital admission and more importantly, lifesaving urgent medical care. In a military combat setting, about thirteen per cent of penetrating wounds to the thoracic cavity require thoracic intervention including a chest tube, contributing up to thirty per cent of combat deaths.
Massive blood loss from severe abdominal or distal limb trauma is challenging to control and necessitates surgical intervention. Current therapies rely on blood replacement products which can be difficult to obtain and may lead to complications for the patient. The trans-esophageal aortic compression balloon works to control blood loss, reducing the need to replace lost blood.
Novel cyclodextrin-based excipients for drug formulations
Cyclodextrins (CDs) are cyclic oligosaccharides used for the improvement of water-solubility and bioavailability of medicinal products. At least six types are available on the market. This class of excipients can be readily tailored for use in drug formulations.
Infectious diseases caused by parasites are a serious global health problem with significant rates of morbidity and mortality. Due to the emergence of treatment-resistant strains of many pathogens, there is a clear need for novel approaches to infectious disease treatment.
Therapeutic Application of AlphaB-cystallin Promotes Recovery from Peripheral Nerve Injury
Damage to peripheral nerves often lead to dysfunction of hands, arms and legs because nerve fibers do not regrow completely in humans. Despite being a common injury, current treatment options rely on surgical anastomosis or nerve engraftment often leading to non-optimal outcomes. Moreover, adequate time for a surgery is often missed as surgical treatment decisions are made later after an initial diagnosis of the injury. An effective treatment option is needed for peripheral nerve injury as delayed surgical repair can result in only partial nerve regeneration.
AlphaB-crystallin (HSPB5/CRYAB/αBC) is a small heat shock protein that enhances survival in response to stress by inhibiting protein aggregation, reducing levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species and inhibiting programmed cell death. αBC is constitutively expressed by the peripheral nervous system (PNS) axons and Schwann cells. The inventors discovered that loss of the crystallin impaired conduction velocity as well as motor and sensory functions were likely related to deficits in remyelination. Intravenous injections of recombinant human αBC promoted remyelination and functional recovery in wild-type mice following a sciatic nerve crush injury revealing a therapeutic effect of αBC.
The emergence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in older adults may provide an indicator of early neurodegenerative disease and dementia. The syndrome Mild Behavioral Impairment (MBI) describes the relationship between later-life onset of sustained neuropsychiatric symptoms and changes in behavior and personality, and the risk of cognitive decline and dementia. The International Society to Advance Alzheimer’s Research and Treatment - Alzheimer’s Association (ISTAART-AA) diagnostic criteria for MBI were published in Alzheimer's & Dementia (Ismail, et al., 2016).
Approximately twenty-five per cent of pre-hospital trauma cases require airway management by emergency response personnel, and delays in proper airway management are a common cause of preventable death in pre-hospital and emergency settings. If performed improperly, airway management procedures can cause secondary injuries to patients. Training emergency personnel to effectively manage a patient's airway is vital for patient safety and optimal treatment conditions.