Novel Eco-friendly Cell Factory for the Production of Tellurium Nanorods
The nanotechnology market represents a flourishing and highly diverse market, with applications ranging from nanomedicine (wound care and antimicrobial coatings), to nanomaterials, including the development of solar panels and electronics. Despite the variety of applications, nanotechnology faces several hurdles before becoming a viable and practical option for research and integration into marketable solutions. These hurdles include high production costs for nano-products, and the harsh chemicals used in nanotechnology synthesis.
The Golgi complex is composed of a stack of membrane-bound cisternae located in the cytoplasm adjacent to the nucleus. The Golgi processes newly synthesized proteins (post-translational modification), sorts and routes them to their final destination. At the outer surface of this complex or trans Golgi, vesicles containing modified proteins leave the Golgi.
Researchers at the University of Calgary have developed and tested a monoclonal antibody that detects a component of the “trans” compartment of the Golgi apparatus. This molecular biological tool can be used to detect the Golgi complex in a wide variety of cells including tissue culture cells such as HeLa cells, and HEp-2 cells, specialized cells (i.e. spermatids) and archived tissues. This antibody can be used as a reference marker in serological examination of patients diagnosed with Sjogren’s syndrome and other systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases. A large number of patients with anti-Golgi antibodies, particularly golgin97, have Sjogren’s syndrome.
Cell Lines Expressing Calcium Channel and Genetically-Encoded Calcium Indicators
Voltage-gated calcium channels are important conduits for the entry of Ca2+ into numerous cell types, and consequently are major therapeutic targets for several disease states linked to ion channels. Conventional electrophysiological approaches used to study ion channels present many challenges that impede novel research and drug discoveries.
Novel Detection Assay of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Directly from Clinical Samples
Staphylococcus aureus (SA) is a Gram-positive anaerobe frequently present in the natural human microbiota of the nose and skin that can cause a range of illnesses, from minor skin infections and food poisoning to life-threatening diseases such as pneumonia, toxic shock syndrome and sepsis. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the most important multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogens worldwide with infections leading to high rates of morbidity and mortality, a significant burden to human and veterinary clinical practices. Treatment and control of MRSA infection is associated with annual healthcare costs of about $3 billion dollars a year.
In a clinical setting, the samples from potential MRSA patients can be highly heterogeneous, making it difficult to detect by conventional antimicrobial susceptibility test methods. With limited treatment options, early detection and infection control practices such as isolation are necessary to help control of spread of MRSA. However current available PCR-based assays are problematic in that they produce false positive and false negative results, neither are they able to detect new emerging genetic variants.
PCR-based Diagnostic for Detection of Lyme Disease Bacteria
Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne disease in North America, and is transmitted by blacklegged ticks carrying Borrelia bacteria. Infection by a tick takes at least 24 hours because of the time required for the bacteria to travel from the tick midgut to its salivary glands. Prompt removal and detection of ticks is the primary method for reducing infection; however, ~300,000 people are still infected with Lyme disease each year in the US alone.
The bacteria responsible for causing Lyme disease are members of the genus Borrelia, with 12 of the 36 known Borrelia species causing Lyme disease. Furthermore, the number of ticks infected with Borrelia bacteria is estimated to be increasing by 2.5% annually. Routine surveillance uses PCR testing on ticks to determine if they carry Borreliaburgdorferi, which is the most common species found in North America; however, new species have been detected and a shift in strain prevalence due to climate changes and regional restrictions of tick travel is expected to continue occurring.
Integrated Neonatal Support with Placental Transfusion and Resuscitation (INSPIRE)
Current international guidelines for the management of infants at birth suggest a delay prior to umbilical cord clamping; benefits include improved cardiovascular function and postnatal adaptation. Studies show that remaining connected to the umbilical cord for one to three minutes after birth reduces the risk of bleeding in the brain by as much as fifty per cent. The standard care for healthy newborns is to wait at least one minute after birth before cutting the umbilical cord.
Spontaneous pneumothorax is a significant global health problem with an estimated incidence of up to two million events per year globally. Air in the chest cavity can sometimes resolve itself but often requires a hospital admission and more importantly, lifesaving urgent medical care. In a military combat setting, about thirteen per cent of penetrating wounds to the thoracic cavity require thoracic intervention including a chest tube, contributing up to thirty per cent of combat deaths.
Massive blood loss from severe abdominal or distal limb trauma is challenging to control and necessitates surgical intervention. Current therapies rely on blood replacement products which can be difficult to obtain and may lead to complications for the patient. The trans-esophageal aortic compression balloon works to control blood loss, reducing the need to replace lost blood.
Novel cyclodextrin-based excipients for drug formulations
Cyclodextrins (CDs) are cyclic oligosaccharides used for the improvement of water-solubility and bioavailability of medicinal products. At least six types are available on the market. This class of excipients can be readily tailored for use in drug formulations.
Infectious diseases caused by parasites are a serious global health problem with significant rates of morbidity and mortality. Due to the emergence of treatment-resistant strains of many pathogens, there is a clear need for novel approaches to infectious disease treatment.
The emergence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in older adults may provide an indicator of early neurodegenerative disease and dementia. The syndrome Mild Behavioral Impairment (MBI) describes the relationship between later-life onset of sustained neuropsychiatric symptoms and changes in behavior and personality, and the risk of cognitive decline and dementia. The International Society to Advance Alzheimer’s Research and Treatment - Alzheimer’s Association (ISTAART-AA) diagnostic criteria for MBI were published in Alzheimer's & Dementia (Ismail, et al., 2016).
Approximately twenty-five per cent of pre-hospital trauma cases require airway management by emergency response personnel, and delays in proper airway management are a common cause of preventable death in pre-hospital and emergency settings. If performed improperly, airway management procedures can cause secondary injuries to patients. Training emergency personnel to effectively manage a patient's airway is vital for patient safety and optimal treatment conditions.